Me like many others didnt get any options to buy or talk to the jarl/steward. But after reading around i found out that there are a couple of quest that blocks you from getting any new conversation with them.
If you have any of the following in your quest list, make sure you complete them and talk to the jarl/steward again. Atleast it worked for me
Getting the book The Mirror for captain Aldis in Solitude
Getting a Mammoth Tusk for Ysolda in Whiterun
Getting the book Song of the Alchemists for Lami in Morthal
Getting the book Night falls on Sentinel for Rustleif in Dawnstar
Getting an Amulet of Arkay for Torbjorn Shatter-Shield in Windhelm