Some info I gleaned from the demo (but could have changed in the final version of course!)
Materials for making stuff (6):
These 3 are the most common and used for crafting seemingly all weapons handles/parts/tips/attachments/circuits
This appears to be in descending order of the most rarest/useful to the least as Tungsten is necessary to craft "Elite" frames (with 8 circuit slots instead of 4)
only seemed to be used for all 3 Stasis upgrades
The Semiotic Gel
is used for health related items i.e. The Rig's HP and craftable med-kits
The final bench reveals Ration Seals
and that's the only other material shown. It isn't in the demo so no idea what it's used for.
There were 'Elite' versions of the weapon frames too that could be crafted. They required Tungsten and Semiconductors and have 8 circuit slots.
This is compared to the 'Standard' Frame which are made with Semiconductors and Scrap Metal and only have 4 circuit slots.
Looks like you can craft Tungsten valves/handles as well, I'm guessing
these will serve the same purpose as using Power Nodes to open doors to those small Bonus rooms.