To launch a satellite you first need to ensure you have the correct facilities built in your base. Doing this will require you to clear additional space and build access lifts to reach lower levels. You will need to construct additional workshops to allow additional engineers to work in your base. Next you need to build power generators which in turn allows you to build a satellite uplink.
Once this is done select the build satellite option from engineering. Once the satellite has been built visit the situation room to launch it. Repeat the process until there is one satellite over every country in a single continent. Once the last satellite is launched and has moved into position in space, the achievement will unlock.
TIP: Wait until you start in South America (only has 2 countires) before attempting this achievement as you will automatically have a satellite over one country when you choose your starting base, then follow the method above and launch the second satellite over the remaining country.